Implementing Random Forest Algorithm in GEE: Separation and Transferability on Built-Up Area in Central Java, Indonesia

Aninda W. Rudiastuti - National Research and Innovation Agency of Indonesia, Cibinong, 16911, Indonesia
Yustisi Lumban-Gaol - National Research and Innovation Agency of Indonesia, Cibinong, 16911, Indonesia
Florence E. S. Silalahi - National Research and Innovation Agency of Indonesia, Cibinong, 16911, Indonesia
Yosef Prihanto - National Research and Innovation Agency of Indonesia, Cibinong, 16911, Indonesia
Widodo S. Pranowo - Marine and Coastal Data Laboratory, Research & Development Center for Marine & Coastal Resources, North Jakarta, 14430, Indonesia

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Measuring the status of achievement of the SDGs is the task and concern of many countries in the world, including Indonesia. Indicators for achieving the SDGs enclose three main pillars, namely environmental, economic, and social. The updated land use/land cover information is needed for environmental pillars. One imperative land cover information is built-up land, which acts as a detector for expanding urban areas and measuring SDGs' target indicators. Indonesia's cultural diversity affects the distribution pattern of built-up land, especially settlements. This is a challenge in the up-to-date and rapid mapping of built-up land. This research aims to analyze the ability and transferability of the Random Forest model for built-up areas and settlements using Google Earth Engine (GEE) in Banyumas, Cilacap, and Tegal. Around 19 predictors from multi-sources satellites are integrated to identify four land cover classes. Discussion on predictor composition to improve model accuracy also carried on. The results showed that the algorithm separated four land cover classes, with the highest accuracy for separating water bodies and other classes (vegetation and open land), OA above 90%. Machine confusion regarding the separation between housing classes and other buildings was still found (F1 score 0.67 - 0.69). Applying the model to the other two areas resulted in a similar statistical trend to the trained model. However, the classification method developed in this paper can assist in the rapid description of land cover if up-to-date data from official sources are not available.


Random forest; machine learning; Google Earth Engine (GEE); settlement; sentinel; Land Use/Land Cover (LULC).

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