Composition Model of Organic Waste Raw Materials Image-Based To Obtain Charcoal Briquette Energy Potential

Norbertus Saptadi - Universitas Hasanuddin, Gowa, South Sulawesi 92171, Indonesia
Ansar Suyuti - Universitas Hasanuddin, Gowa, South Sulawesi 92171, Indonesia
Amil Ahmad Ilham - Universitas Hasanuddin, Gowa, South Sulawesi 92171, Indonesia
Ingrid Nurtanio - Universitas Hasanuddin, Gowa, South Sulawesi 92171, Indonesia

Citation Format:



Indonesia needs new renewable energy as an alternative to fuel oil. The existence of organic waste is an opportunity to replace oil because it is renewable and contains relatively less air-polluting sulfur. Previous research that has been widely carried out still utilizes coconut shell raw materials, which are increasingly limited in number, so other alternative raw materials are needed. A model is needed to make a formulation that can optimize the composition of organic waste raw materials as a basic ingredient for making briquettes. The research objective was to determine the best raw material composition based on digital image analysis in processing organic waste into briquettes. An artificial intelligence approach with a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architecture can predict an effective object detection model. The image analysis results have shown an effective model in the raw material composition of 60% coconut, 20% wood, and 20% adhesive to produce quality biomass briquettes. Briquettes with a higher percentage of coconut will perform better in composition tests than mixed briquettes. The energy obtained from burning briquettes is useful for meeting household fuel needs and meeting micro, small, and medium business industries.


Organic Waste; Raw Material; Composition; Model; Charcoal Briquettes.

Full Text:



J. S. Setyono, F. H. Mardiansjah, and M. febrina K. Astuti, “The potential for the development of new energy and renewable energy in the city of Semarang,†Riptek, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 177–186, 2019.

V. Y. Erviana, A. A. Mudayana, and I. Suwartini, “Community Empowerment in Organic Waste Treatment,†J. SOLMA, vol. 8, no. 2, p. 339, 2019, doi: 10.29405/solma.v8i2.3697.

M. Azhar and D. A. Satriawan, “Implementation of New Energy and Renewable Energy Policy in the Context of National Energy Security,†Adm. Law Gov. J., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 398–412, 2018, doi: 10.14710/alj.v1i4.398-412.

R. R. Al Hakim, “The Indonesian Energy Model, An Overview of Renewable Energy Potential for Energy Security in Indonesia: A Review,†ANDASIH J. Pengabdi. Kpd. Masy., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 11–21, 2020, [Online]. Available:

M. H. Islam, M. M. Hossain, and M. A. Momin, “Development of briquette from coir dust and rice husk blend: An alternative energy source,†International Journal of Renewable Energy Development., 2014, [Online]. Available:

S. Sunardi, D. Djuanda, and M. A. S. Mandra, “Characteristics of charcoal briquettes from agricultural waste with compaction pressure and particle size variation as alternative fuel,†Int. Energy J., 2019, [Online]. Available:

Ibrahim MS, B. S, and I. A, “Biomass Briquettes as an Alternative Source of Cooking Fuel towards Green Recovery Post COVID-19,†Saudi J. Eng. Technol., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 285–290, 2020, doi: 10.36348/sjet.2020.v05i06.005.

J. Yu and J. Wu, “The sustainability of agricultural development in China: The agriculture-environment nexus,†Sustain., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 1–17, 2018, doi: 10.3390/su10061776.

E. Kafama and L. Botahala, “Comparison of the Quality of Coconut Shell Briquettes and Candlenut Shells As Alternative Fuels,†Techno Entrep. Acta, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 100–103, 2020, [Online]. Available:

K. Budaraga, Arnim, Y. Marlida, and U. Bulanin, “Liquid smoke production quality from raw materials variation and different pyrolysis temperature,†Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 306–315, 2016, doi: 10.18517/ijaseit.6.3.737.

B. Setyawan and R. Ulfa, “Quality analysis of charcoal briquettes from biomass waste of coffee husk and coconut shell mixture with tapioca flour adhesive,†Edubiotik J. Educ. Biol. Appl., vol. 4, no. 02, pp. 110–120, 2019, doi: 10.33503/ebio.v4i02.508.

Rindayatno, M. K. Sari, and S. Wagiman, “The quality of charcoal briquettes is based on the composition of the mixture of charcoal from red meranti wood (Shoora sp.) and coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L.),†Pros. Semin. Nas. Ke 1 Tahun 2017. Balai Ris. dan Stand. Ind. Samarinda, pp. 98–111, 2017.

J. Kimia, V. Jurnal, I. Kimia, I. Qistina, and D. Sukandar, “Quality Assessment of Biomass Briquettes from Rice Husk and Coconut Shells,†vol. 2, no. November, pp. 136–142, 2016.

D. Sugrue, A. Martin, and P. Adriaens, “Applied Financial Metrics to Measure Interdependencies in a Waterway Infrastructure System,†J. Infrastruct. Syst., 2021, [Online]. Available:

R. Rifdah, N. Herawati, and F. Dubron, “Making Biobriquettes From Corn Cob Waste Boiled Corn Traders And Households As Renewable Energy Fuel With Carbonization Process,†J. Distilasi, vol. 2, no. 2, p. 39, 2018, doi: 10.32502/jd.v2i2.1202.

P. Parraguez, S. Škec, D. O. e Carmo, and A. Maier, “Quantifying technological change as a combinatorial process,†Technol. Forecast. Soc. Change, 2020, [Online]. Available:

N. Tri, S. Saptadi, A. Suyuti, A. Ahmad, and I. Nurtanio, “Prediction System Data Model In Obtaining Energy Potential of Biomass Briquette Compared to Other,†J. Southwest Jiaotong Univ., vol. 57, no. 5, 2022, doi:

L. Sulistyaningkarti and B. Utami, “Making Charcoal Briquettes from Corncobs Organic Waste Using Variation of Type and Percentage of Adhesives,†J. Chem. Chem. Educ., vol. 2, no. 1, p. 43, 2017, doi: 10.20961/jkpk.v2i1.8518.

T. Desara and T. Hidayat, “Enrichment: Journal of Management is Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0) Enrichment: Journal of Management Enhancing Repurchase Intention in Retail: the Role of Customer Satisfaction, Servic,†Enrich. J. Manag., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 325–329, 2021.

Z. Cheng, Z. Tan, Z. Guo, J. Yang, and Q. Wang, “Recent progress in sustainable and energy-efficient technologies for sinter production in the iron and steel industry,†Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., 2020, [Online]. Available:

S. Hassan, L. S. Kee, and H. H. Al-Kayiem, “Experimental study of palm oil mill effluent and oil palm frond waste mixture as an alternative biomass fuel,†Journal of Engineering Science and Technology., 2013, [Online]. Available:

N. A. Hamid, H. A. Muaddah, A. Za’ba, and M. Afandy, “Biomass Briqmure: BBQ Briquettes Fuel Source from Cow Manure,†Proc. First Int. Conf. Sci. Technol. Eng. Ind. Revolut. (ICSTEIR 2020), 2021, doi:

A. Taner, Y. B. Öztekin, and H. Duran, “Performance analysis of deep learning cnn models for variety classification in Hazelnut,†Sustain., vol. 13, no. 12, 2021, doi: 10.3390/su13126527.

S. S. Idris, M. I. Zailan, N. Azron, and N. A. Rahman, “Sustainable green charcoal briquette from food waste via microwave pyrolysis technique: Influence of type and concentration of binders on chemical and physical characteristics,†Int. J. Renew. Energy Dev., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 425–433, 2021, doi: 10.14710/ijred.2021.33101.

S. Widodo and N. Asmiani, “Utilising Of Canary Shell As The Material Of Bio-Briquette,†Int. J. Eng. Sci. Appl., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 2656–3053, 2019.

A. Zaenul amin, J. T. Mesin, F. Teknik, and U. N. Semarang, “The Effect of Variations in the Amount of Tapioca Starch Adhesive on the Characteristics of Coconut Shell Charcoal Briquettes,†Sainteknol J. Sains dan Teknol., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 111–118, 2017.

G. Kumar, G. Thampi, and P. K. Mondal, “Predicting Performance of Briquette Made from Millet Bran: A Neural Network Approach,†Adv. J. Grad. Res., 2021, [Online]. Available:

A. Z. Syaiful and M. Tang, “Making Charcoal Briquettes From Coconut Shells Using the Pyrolysis Method,†J. Saintis, vol. 1, 2020, [Online]. Available:

S. Widodo et al., “The effect of raw material composition of mixed carbonized canary shell and coal bio briquettes on caloric value,†IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 921, no. 1, p. 012027, 2021, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/921/1/012027.

S. Lanka, “Briquettes Production as an Alternative Fuel,†2021.

I. A. Ivkova, E. A. Zubareva, N. B. Dovgan, and A. Yu Nadtochiy, “Organic dairy products made from organic raw materials,†IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 954, no. 1, p. 012034, 2022, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/954/1/012034.

A. A. Adeleke, J. K. Odusote, and P. P. Ikubanni, “Ash analyses of bio-coal briquettes produced using blended binder,†Scientific Reports., 2021, [Online]. Available:

T. Ahmad et al., “Object Detection through Modified YOLO Neural Network,†Sci. Program., vol. 2020, pp. 1–10, 2020, doi: 10.1155/2020/8403262.

Y. Han, T. Jiang, Y. Ma, and C. Xu, “Pretraining Convolutional Neural Networks for Image-Based Vehicle Classification,†Adv. Multimed., vol. 2018, 2018, doi: 10.1155/2018/3138278.

Y. Wang et al., “A CNN-Based Adaptive Surface Monitoring System for Fused Deposition Modeling,†IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 2287–2296, 2020, doi: 10.1109/TMECH.2020.2996223.

N. Afgan and M. da G. Carvalho, Sustainable assessment method for energy systems: indicators, criteria and decision making procedure., 2000.

Aboytes-Ojeda M, Castillo-Villar K, and S. Eksioglu, “Modeling and Optimization of Quality Variability for Decision Support Systems in biomass supply chains,†nnals Oper. Res., 2018, [Online]. Available:

Suhartoyo and Sriyanto, “Effectiveness of Biomass Briquettes,†Pros. SNATIF, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 301–326, 2017, [Online]. Available: