A Hybrid Key Pre-Distribution Scheme for Securing Communications in Wireless Sensor Networks

Mojtaba Jamshidi, Hamid Bazargan, Abdusalam Abdulla Shaltooki, Aso Mohammad Darwesh


Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a type of ad hoc networks which consist of hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes. These sensor nodes collaborate to surveillance environment. WSNs have a variety of applications in military, industrial and other fields and they are fit to study environments that presence of human being is costly or dangerous. Sensor nodes have memory, energy and processing limitations. According to sensors' limitations and also increasing use of these networks in military fields, establishing a secure WSN is very important and challenging. Applying Key Predistribution Schemes (KPSs) is one of the effective and useful mechanisms to provide security in WSN. In this paper, a hybrid KPS is proposed that support three various keys, primary pairwise, polynomial, and ordinary. The proposed scheme has been implemented using J-SIM simulator and its performance has been evaluated in terms of maximum supportable network sizes and resiliency against node capture attack, by performing some experiments. Simulation results have been compared with Basic, q-Composite, RS, Cluster-Based, QS, and Double-Key Hash schemes. The compared results showed that the proposed scheme has a better resiliency against links disclosing via enemies.


Wireless Sensor Network; Security; Key Management; Cryptography; Pairwise Keys


M. Jamshidi, A. A. Shaltooki, Z. D. Zadeh and A. M. Darwesh, “A Dynamic ID Assignment Mechanism to Defend Against Node Replication Attack in Static Wireless Sensor Networks”, JOIV: International Journal on Informatics Visualization, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2019.

M. Jamshidi, E. Zangeneh, M. Esnaashari and M. R. Meybodi. “A lightweight algorithm for detecting mobile Sybil nodes in mobile wireless sensor networks”, Computers & Electrical Engineering, Vol. 64, pp. 220-232, 2017.

A. Andalib, M. Jamshidi, F. Andalib and D. Momeni, “A Lightweight Algorithm for Detecting Sybil Attack in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks using Sink Nodes”, International Journal of Computer Applications Technology and Research, Vol. 5, No. 7, pp. 433 – 438, 2016.

H. S. Jangwan and A. Negi, “A Swarm Optimization Based Power Aware Clustering Strategy for WSNs. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 250-256, 2017.

G. Padmavathi and D. shanmugapriya, "A survey of attacks, security mechanisms and Challenges in Wireless sensor networks", International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security (IJCSIS), Vol. 4, No. 1 & 2, 2009.

Y. Xiao, V. K Rayi, B. Sun and et. al.,”A survey of key management schemes in wireless sensor networks”, Computer Communications, Vol. 30, pp. 2314–2341, 2007.

J. Zhang and V. Varadharajan, “Wireless sensor network key management survey and taxonomy”, Journal of Network and Computer Applications, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 63-75, 2010.

B. Lai, S. Kim, I. Verbauwhede, “Scalable session key construction protocol for wireless sensor networks”, IEEE workshop on Large Scale RealTime and Embedded Systems LARTES, 2002.

S. Zhu, S. Setia, S. Jajodia, “LEAP: efficient security mechanisms for large- scale distributed sensor Networks”. 10th ACM conference on computer and communications security, October 2003.

A. Perrig, R. Szewczyk, V. Wen, D. Cullar, J.D. Tygar “SPINS: security protocols for sensor networks”, 7th annual ACM/IEEE international conference on mobile computing and networking, pp. 189–99, July 2001.

H. Chan, A. Perrig and D. Song, “Random Key Predistribution Schemes for Sensor Networks”, IEEE Security and Privacy Symposim, 2003.

L. Eschenauer and V. Gligor, “A Key Management Scheme for Distributed Sensor Networks”, 9th ACM Conference on Computing and Communication Security, Washington, DC, USA, November 2002.

H. Chan, A. Perrig and D. Song, “Key distribution techniques for sensor networks”, IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, pp. 197-213, berkely, California, May 2003.

D. Liu and P. Ning, “Establishing pairwise keys in distributed sensor networks”, 10th ACM conference on Computer and communications security CCS03, 2003.

A. Rasheed and N. Rabi, Mahapatra. "Key predistribution schemes for establishing pairwise keys with a mobile sink in sensor networks." IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 175-184, 2011.

J. Zhang and et al., “A Strong Key Pre-Distribution Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Conference on Networks Security, Wireless Communications and Trusted Computing, 2009.

N. Mittal and N. Ramon, "Cluster-based key predistribution using deployment knowledge." IEEE Transactions on dependable and secure computing, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 329-335, 2010.

J. Zhang, T. Jianwei and L. Jian, "Key Distribution using Double Keyed-hash Chains for Wireless Sensor Networks." International Journal of Security & Its Applications, Vol. 7, No. 5, 2013.

K. Mu and L. Li, "An Efficient Pairwise Key Predistribution Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks", Journal of Networks, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 277-282, 2014.

J. Zhang, W. Xuerui and L. Jian, "An Efficient Key Predistribution Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks via Combinatorial Design", International Journal of Security and Its Applications, Vol. 9, No. 6, pp. 135-146, 2015.

J-SIM Simulator, https://sites.google.com/site/jsimofficial/, December 25, 2016.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30630/joiv.3.1.203


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

JOIV : International Journal on Informatics Visualization
Published by Information Technology Department
Politeknik Negeri Padang, Indonesia

© JOIV - ISSN : 2549-9610 | e-ISSN : 2549-9904 

Phone : +62-82386434344
Email  : hidraamnur@live.com | hidra@pnp.ac.id

Creative Commons License is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats