Accuracy of Panoramic Dental X-Ray Imaging in Detection of Proximal Caries with Multiple Morpological Gradient (mMG) Method

Jufriadif Na`am


Dental caries is tooth decay caused by bacterial infection. This is commonly known as tooth decay. Classification of caries by location consists of; occlusal caries, proximal caries, root caries and caries enamel. Diagnosis of dental caries in general carried out with the help of radiographic images is called Dental X-Ray. Dental X-Ray consists of bitewing, Periapical and Panoramic. Identification of proximal caries using Dental Panoramic X-Ray lowest precision was compared with both other Dental X-Ray. This study aims to perform sharpening and improving the quality of information contained in the image of Panoramic Dental X-Ray to clarify the edges of the objects contained in the image, making it easier to identify and proximal caries severity. The methods and algorithms used are multiple Morphology Gradient (mMG). The results obtained are increased accuracy in identifying proximal caries 47.5%. Based on the severity of it, that level of enamel = 47.37%; dentin rate = 42.1% and the rate of dentin = 1.3%. Accuracy level of accuracy in identifying proximal caries a higher level of email, so that patients with proximal caries early levels can be tackled early handling by the dentist


Proximal Caries; Caries; multiple Morphological Gradient (MMG); Panoramic X-Ray; Smoothing and Sharpening the Edges of Objects

Full Text:



Crane R., A Simplified Approach to Image Processing Classical and Modern Techniques in C, Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall PTR, 1997.

Mount G.J. and Hume W.R., Preservation and Restoration of Tooth Structure, Australia: Knowledge Books and Software, 2005.

Widodo S., “Segmentasi Otomatis Untuk Visualisasi 3-D Organ Paru Pada Citra Computer Tomography Menggunakan Active Countour”, Jurnal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 26-40, 2011.

Madenda S., Pengolahan Citra & Video Digital, Jakarta: Erlangga, 2015.

White S.C. and Pharoah M.J, Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation, United States: Elsevier Health Sciences Mosby, 2009.

Hermawan R., Menyehatkan Daerah Mulut (Cara Praktis Menghilangkan Bau Mulut disertai Tips Agar Gigi dan Mulut Anda Selalu Sehat dan Indah, Jogjakarta: Buku Biru, 2012.

Tikhe S.V., Naik A.M., Bhide S.D., Saravanan T. and Kaliyamurthie K.P., “Algorithm to Identify Enamel Caries and Interproximal Caries Using Dental Digital Radiographs”, IEEE 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing (IACC), pp. 226-228, 2016.

Pamplona M.C., Soriano Y.J. and Perez M.G.S., “Dental considerations in patients with heart disease”, J Clin Exp Dent, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 97-105, 2011.

Summit, James B., Robbins J.W. and Schwartz R.S., Fundamentals of Operative Dentistry: A Contemporary Approach, Berlin: Quintessenz Verlag, 2011.

Ramesh T., Upendra G., Sravani K.B., Dathar S., Sinha P., Raghavendra M.N, Myla S. and Roja K., “A comparative study to diagnose the accuracy of E-speed film, complimentary metal oxide semiconductor and storage phosphor systems in the detection of proximal caries: An in vitro study”, International Journal of Dental Research, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1-4, 2016.

Sonis and Stephen T., Dental Secrets: Questions and Answers Reveal the Secrets to the Principles and Practice of Dentistry, Philadelphia: Hanley & Belfus Inc., 2003.

Abesi F., “Diagnostic accuracy of Digital and Conventional radiography in the detection of non-cavitated approximal dental caries”, Iran J radiology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 17-21, 2012.

Sainu R., Madhumala R., Thouseef, Majeed A., Ravi S., Sayeeganesh N. and Jayachandran D., “Imaging Techniques in Periodontics: A Review Article”, Journal of Bioscience And Technology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 739-747, 2016.

Rad A.E., Rahim M.S., Norouzi A., “Digital Dental X-Ray Image Segmentation and Feature Extraction”, TELKOMNIKA Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 3109-3114, 2013.

Angkoso C.V., Ingrid N., Ketut E.P. and Mauridhi H.P., Analisa Tekstur Untuk Membedakan Kista Dan Tumor pada Citra Panoramik Rahang Gigi Manusia, , ITS Surabaya: The 12th Seminar Intelligent Technology and Applicatin, 2011.

Ahmed El-Rafei and Tobias Engelhorn, Computational Vision and Medical Image Processing: Recent Trends, Netherlands: Springer, 2011.

Akarslan Z.Z., Akdevelionglu M., Gungor K. and Erten H., “A comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of bitewing, periapical, unfiltered and filtered digital panoramic images for approximal caries detection in posterior teeth”, Dentomaxillofacial Radiology , vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 458-463, 2008.

Kamburoglu K., Kolsuz E., Murat S., Yüksel S. and Ozen T., “Proximal caries detection accuracy using intraoral bitewing radiography, extraoral bitewing radiography and panoramic radiography”, Dento Maxillo Facial Radiol, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 450-459, 2012.

Hoseini Z.S.H., Javadian L.A. and Shafagh M.M. (2013), "Comparison between Two Digital Panoramic Radiography Techniques for Proximal Caries Detection", J Dent Mater Tech, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 54-58, 2013.

Abdinian M., Razavi S.M., Faghihian R., Samety A.A. and Faghihian E., "Accuracy of Digital Bitewing Radiography versus Different Views of Digital Panoramic Radiography for Detection of Proximal Caries", Journal of Dentistry, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 290-297, 2015.

Sabarinathan K.M., Mahalakshmi M., Shoba B., Vidhya S., Siva P.G., Dhanesh K.K. and Natarajan V.G., “Identification of Tooth Decay in Panoramic X-ray using Image Processing”, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 60-64, 2015.

Tafakhori Z., Khazaei M. and Afshari P.A., “Accuracy of Digital Panoramic Imaging in Detection of Proximal Caries in Posterior Teeth”, Sadra Med Sci J, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 99-106, 2016.

Terry G.L., Noujeim M., Langlais R.P., Moore W.S. and Prihoda T.J., “A clinical comparison of extraoral panoramic and intraoral radiographic modalities for detecting proximal caries and visualizing open posterior interproximal contacts”, Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1-7, 2016.

Valizadeh S., Goodini M., Ehsani S., Mohseni H., Azimi F. dan Bakhshandeh H., “Designing of a Computer Software for Detection of Approximal Caries in Posterior Teeth”, Iran J Radiol, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 1-5, 2015.

Mohtavipour S.T. and Javadzadeh H.A. (2016), "Comparison of digital panoramic and bite-wing radiography in proximal caries detection of molar teeth", J Isfahan Dent Sch, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 531-533, 2016.

Li X., Abaza A., Nassar D.E. and Ammar H.,“Fast And Accurate Segmentation of Dental X-Ray Records”, Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 688-697, 2005.

Eyad H.S., Gamal F., Nassar A. and Ammar A., “Dental X-ray Image Segmentation”, International Journal on Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 1-13, 2006.

Chen J., Bai G., Liang S. and Li Z., Automatic Image Cropping : A Computational Complexity Study, Las Vegas: The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) in Computer Vision Foundation (CVF), 2016.

Julius S. and Jufriadif N., Infiltrate Object Extraction in X-ray Image by using Math-Morphology Method and Feature Region Analysis, International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 239-244, 2016

Na`am J., Harlan J., Madenda S. and Wibowo E.P. (2016), "Identification of the Proximal Caries of Dental X-Ray Image with Multiple Morphology Gradient Method", International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 343-346, 2016.

Kadir A. and Susanto A., Pegolahan Citra Teori dan Aplikasi, Yogyakarta: Andi Publisher, 2012.

Na`am J., Harlan J., Madenda S. dan Wibowo E.P., ”The Algorithm of Image Edge Detection on Panoramic Dental X-Ray Using Multiple Morphological Gradient (mMG) Method", International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 2012-2018, 2016.

Burger W. and Burge M.J., Digital Image Processing An Algorithmic Introduction Using Java, Springer, London, 2016.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

JOIV : International Journal on Informatics Visualization
Published by Information Technology Department
Politeknik Negeri Padang, Indonesia

© JOIV - ISSN : 2549-9610 | e-ISSN : 2549-9904 

Phone : +62-82386434344
Email  : |

Creative Commons License is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats